Hawaiian Cultural Renaissance II
and the Ha'akoa
Hawaiian Cultural Renaissance:
The late 1960’s and 1970’s marked a time of cultural and political awakening for the people of Hawai‘i. The desire to learn and do things Hawaiian included, but was not limited to, language, music, traditional navigation and voyaging, hula, political activism, sovereignty, protection of traditional native gathering rights, lua and ha‘akoa.
Note: There are actually two Cultural Renaissances, the first beginning with King Kamehmeha V and ending with King Kalākaua. The second peaking during the 1960s and 1970s, however many things began earlier and continue with us today.
1957 Hawaiian Dictionary by Kawena Pukui and Samuel Elbert
1960s Surfing is recognized internationally as Hawaii’s sport of kings
60-70s Gabby Pahinui and others help to make traditional Hawaiian music relevant and popular
1961 Hawaiian language offered at Kamehameha Schools for the first time
1964 “On Being Hawaiian” by John Dominis
1964 Establishment of the Merrie Monarch Festival by George Na‘ope
(Hula Competition begins in 1971)
1970’s Hawaiian canoe racing explodes throughout the islands
1970s Kalama Valley demonstrations (early 70’s)
1971 Establishment of the Hawaiian Music Foundation
1972 4-year Hawaiian language program offered at the University of Hawai‘i
1973 Establishment of the Polynesian Voyaging Society
1974 Establishment of the Hawaiian Businessmen’s Association
1974 Teaching of Lua by Charles W. Kenn resulting in the establishment of two
schools of Lua: Pa Ku‘i-a-Lua and Ku‘i-a-Holo.
1976 Establishment of Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana (PKO)
1976 Hōkūle‘a’s historic voyage to Tahiti
1976 University of Hawai‘i establishes the first B.A. programs for Hawaiian Language
and Hawaiian Studies.
1976 Establishment of Hale Naua III to perpetuate Hawaiian arts and crafts
1977 ‘Ahahui ‘ōlelo Hawai‘i, is established on Oahu by Dorothy Kahananui
1977 Hui Ho‘oulu ‘ōlelo Hawai‘i is established in Hilo by Edith Kanaka‘ole
1978 Establishment of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs (OHA)
1978 Constitutional Convention recognizing ‘olelo Hawai'i as an official language of the state of
Hawai‘i along with English.
1978 Na Hoku Hanohano Awards created
Ongoing affects of the Renaissance post 1980s
1984 Initiation of Public Hawaiian Language Immersion pre-schools
1987 Establishment of Ka Lāhui Hawaiʻi
1994 U.S. Navy transfers title of Kaho‘olawe to the State of Hawai‘i after years of
advocacy by PKO members and supporters.
2007 The University of Hawai‘i football program incorporates a Maori Haka into its pregame
protocol. Due to external and internal pressures, the Haka begins to evolve into a more culturally
competent Hawaiian Ha‘a.
2008 First Haʻakoa Conference presented by the Royal Order of Kamehameha, Māmalahoa at the
University of Hawaii at Hilo.
2016 The University of Hawai‘i football program transitions from an initially Maori based Haka to a
more Hawaiian culturally competent Ha‘a
2018 Creation of Ha‘akoa Eia Hawai‘i
2018 Website haakoa.com launched
2019 Second Haʻakoa Conference presented by the Royal Order of Kamehameha, Māmalahoa at
Kamehameha Schools, Keʻeau